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Jobs’s triumph was soon complete. A few weeks after winning

Jobs’s triumph was soon complete. A few weeks after winning his power struggle with Raskin to run the Mac division, he helped push out Mike Scott as Apple’s president. Scotty had become more and more erratic, alternately bullying and nurturing. He finally lost most of his support among the

employees when he surprised them by imposing a round of layoffs that he handled with atypical ruthlessness. In addition, he had begun to suffer a variety of afflictions, ranging from eye infections to narcolepsy. When Scott

was on vacation in Hawaii, Markkula called together the top managers to ask if he should be replaced. Most of them, including Jobs and John Couch, said yes. So Markkula took over as an interim and rather passive president, and Jobs found that he now had full rein to do what he wanted with the Mac division.

a long-distance call to go through without extra charges. The article revealed that other tones that

served to route calls could be found in an issue of the Bell System Technical Journal, which AT&T

immediately began asking libraries to pull from their shelves.

As soon as Jobs got the call from Wozniak that Sunday afternoon, he knew they would have to get

 

their hands on the technical journal right away. “Woz picked me up a few minutes later, and we went

to the library at SLAC [the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center] to see if we could find it,” Jobs recounted.

It was Sunday and the library was closed, but they knew how to get in through a door that was rarely locked.

“I remember that we were furiously digging through the stacks, and it was Woz who finally found the journal

with all the frequencies. It was like, holy shit, and we opened it and there it was. We kept saying to ourselves,

‘It’s real. Holy shit, it’s real.’ It was all laid out—the tones, the frequencies.”

Wozniak went to Sunnyvale Electronics before it closed that evening and bought the parts to make

an analog tone generator. Jobs had built a frequency counter when he was part of the HP Explorers

Club, and they used it to calibrate the desired tones. With a dial, they could replicate and tape-record

the sounds specified in the article. By midnight they were ready to test it. Unfortunately the oscillators

they used were not quite stable enough to replicate the right chirps to fool the phone company.

“We could see the instability using Steve’s frequency counter,” recalled Wozniak, “and we just

couldn’t make it work. I had to leave for Berkeley

the next morning, so we

decided I would work

on building a digital

version once I got there.”

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The disagreements were more than just philosophical; they became

The disagreements were more than just philosophical; they became clashes of personality. “I think that he likes people to jump when he says jump,” Raskin once said. “I felt that he was untrustworthy, and that he does not take kindly

to being found wanting. He doesn’t seem to like people who see him without a halo.” Jobs was equally dismissive of Raskin. “Jef was really pompous,” he said. “He didn’t know much about interfaces. So I decided to nab some of his people who were really good, like Atkinson, bring in some of my own, take the thing over and build a less expensive Lisa, not some piece of junk.”

“Ron was an amazing guy,” said Jobs. “He started companies.

I had never met anybody like that.” He proposed to Wayne

that they go into business together; Jobs said he could borrow

$50,000, and they could design and market a slot machine.

But Wayne had already been burned in business, so he declined.

“I said that was the quickest way to lose $50,000,” Wayne recalled,

“but I admired the fact that he had a burning drive to start his own business.”

One weekend Jobs was visiting Wayne at his apartment, engaging as they

often did in philosophical discussions, when Wayne said that there was

something he needed to tell him. “Yeah, I think I know what it is,”

Jobs replied. “I think you like men.” Wayne said yes. “It was my

first encounter with someone who I knew was gay,” Jobs recalled.

“He planted the right perspective of it for me.” Jobs grilled him:

“When you see a beautiful woman, what do you feel?” Wayne replied,

“It’s like when you look at a beautiful horse. You can appreciate it, but you

don’t want to sleep with it. You appreciate beauty for what it is.”

Wayne said that it is a testament to Jobs that he felt like revealing this to

him. “Nobody at Atari knew, and I could count on my toes and fingers

the number of people I told in my whole life. But I guess it just felt right to

tell him, that he would understand, and it didn’t have any effect on our relationship.”

India

One reason Jobs was eager to make some money in early 1974 was that

Robert Friedland, who had gone to India the summer before, was urging

him to take his own spiritual journey there. Friedland had studied in India with

Neem Karoli Baba (Maharaj-ji), who had been the guru to much of the sixties

hippie movement. Jobs decided he should do the same, and he recruited

Daniel Kottke to go with him. Jobs was not motivated by mere adventure.

“For me it was a serious search,” he said. “I’d been turned on to the idea of

enlightenment and trying to figure out who I was and how I fit into things.”

Kottke adds that Jobs’s quest seemed

driven partly by not

knowing his birth parents.

“There was a hole in him,

and he was trying to fill it.”

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He was leaning on an Apple II and looking directly into

He was leaning on an Apple II and looking directly into

the camera with the mesmerizing stare he had picked

up from Robert Friedland. “When Steve Jobs speaks,

 

it is with the gee-whiz enthusiasm of someone who

sees the future and is making sure it works,”

the magazine reported.

 

for a while. His confidence improved and his feelings of inadequacy were reduced.”

Jobs came to believe that he could impart that feeling of confidence

to others and thus push them to do things they hadn’t thought possible.

 

Holmes had broken up with Kottke and joined a religious cult in San

Francisco that expected her to sever ties with all past friends. But Jobs

rejected that injunction. He arrived at the cult house in his Ford Ranchero

 

one day and announced that he was driving up to Friedland’s apple farm

and she was to come. Even more brazenly, he said she would have to drive

part of the way, even though she didn’t know how to use the stick shift.

 

“Once we got on the open road, he made me get behind the wheel, and he

shifted the car until we got up to 55 miles per hour,” she recalled.

 

“Then he puts on a tape of Dylan’s Blood on the Tracks, lays his head

in my lap, and goes to sleep. He had the attitude that he could do anything,

and therefore so can you. He put his life in my hands. So that made me

 

do something I didn’t think I could do.”

It was the brighter side of what would become known as his reality

 

distortion field. “If you trust him, you can do things,” Holmes said.

“If he’s decided that something should happen,

 

then he’s just going to make it happen.”

Breakout

One day in early 1975 Al Alcorn was sitting in his office at Atari when Ron Wayne burst in.

“Hey, Stevie is back!”

he shouted.

“Wow, bring him on in,”

Alcorn replied.

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of a small development project code-named “Annie”

of a small development project code-named “Annie” to do just that. Since Raskin thought it was sexist to name computers after women, he redubbed the project in honor of his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh. But he

changed the spelling in order not to conflict with the name of the audio equipment maker McIntosh Laboratory. The proposed computer became known as the Macintosh.

San Diego argued that computers should have graphical rather than text-based interfaces. When he got fed up with

teaching, he rented a hot air balloon, flew over the chancellor’s house, and shouted down his decision to quit.

your intuition starts to blossom and you start to see things more clearlyand be in the present more. Your mind just slows down, and you see

Bruce Horn was one of the programmers at Xerox PARC. When some of his friends, such as Larry Tesler, decided to join the

Macintosh group, Horn considered going there as well. But he got a good offer, and a $15,000 signing bonus, to join another

company. Jobs called him on a Friday night. “You have to come into Apple tomorrow morning,” he said.

a tremendous expanse in the moment. You see so much more than

you could see before. It’s a discipline; you have to practice it.

Zen has been a deep influence in my life ever since. At one point

I was thinking about going to Japan and trying to get into the

Eihei-ji monastery, but my spiritual advisor urged me to stay here.

He said there is nothing over there that isn’t here, and he was correct.

I learned the truth of the Zen saying that if you are willing to travel around

the world to meet a teacher, one will appear next door.

Jobs did in fact find a teacher right in his own neighborhood. Shunryu Suzuki,

who wrote Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind and ran the San Francisco Zen Center,

used to come to Los Altos every Wednesday evening to lecture and meditate

with a small group of followers. After a while he asked his assistant,

Kobun Chino Otogawa, to open a full-time center there. Jobs became

a faithful follower, along with his occasional girlfriend, Chrisann Brennan,

and Daniel Kottke and Elizabeth Holmes. He also began to go by himself on

retreats to the

Tassajara Zen Center,

a monastery near

Carmel where

Kobun also taught.

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Xun Yu said, “O Leader, you are brave, but we must consider present

Getting shocked was a badge of honor for Woz.

He prided himself on being a hardware engineer, which meant that random shocks were routine. He once devised a roulette game where four people put their thumbs in a slot; when the ball landed, one would get shocked. “Hardware guys will play this game, but software guys are too chicken,” he noted.

 

During his senior year he got a part-time job at Sylvania and had the

Xun Yu said, “O Leader, you are brave, but we must consider the present circumstance. We cannot start a sudden war just as the capital has been changed. However, there is a certain ruse known as ‘Rival Tigers and One Prey.’ Liu Bei has no decree authorizing him to govern the region. You, Sir Prime Minister, can procure one for him, and when sending it, and so conferring upon him right in addition to his might, you can enclose a private note telling him to get rid of Lu Bu. If he does, then he will have lost a vigorous warrior from his side, and he could be dealt with as occasions serve. Should he fail, then Lu Bu will slay him. This is ‘Rival Tigers and One Prey’ ruse; they wrangle and bite each other.”

Yang Feng was completely surprised and tried to draw off

Cao Cao was then the one man of the court. All memorials went first to him and were then submitted to the Throne. When state matters were in order, Cao Cao gave a GREat banquet in his private quarters to all his advisers, and affairs outside the capital were the subject of discussion.
  then Cao Cao said, “Liu Bei has his army at Xuzhou, and he carries on the administration of the region. Lu Bu fled to Liu Bei when defeated, and Liu Bei gave Lu Bu Xiaopei to live in. If these two aGREed to join forces and attack, my position would be most serious. What precautions can be taken?”
  then rose Xu Chu, saying, “Give me fifty thousand of picked soldiers, and I will give the Prime Minister both their heads.”

  Xun Yu said, “O Leader, you are brave, but we must consider the present circumstance. We cannot start a sudden war just as the capital has been changed. However, there is a certain ruse known as ‘Rival Tigers and One Prey.’ Liu Bei has no decree authorizing him to govern the region. You, Sir Prime Minister, can procure one for him, and when sending it, and so conferring upon him right in addition to

his might, you can enclose a private note telling him to get rid of Lu Bu. If he does, then he will have lost a vigorous warrior

from his side, and he could be dealt with as occasions serve. Should he fail, then Lu Bu will slay him. This is ‘Rival Tigers and One Prey’ ruse; they wrangle and bite each other.”

  then said Man Chong, “There are very few as bold as you on the earth. Why then do you serve such as your present chiefs, Yang Feng and Han Xian? My master is the most prominent man in the world——a man who delights in wise people and appreciates soldiers as everyone knows. Your valor today won his entire admiration, and so he took care that the attack was not vigorous enough to sacrifice you. Now he has sent me to invite you to join him. Will you not leave darkness for light and help him in his magnificent task?”

On Thanksgiving weekend of his senior year, Wozniak visited the University of Colorado. It was closed for the holiday, but he found an engineering student who took him on a tour of the labs.

He begged his father to let him go there, even though the out-of-state tuition was more than the family could easily afford. They struck a deal:

He would be allowed to go for one year, but then he would transfer to De Anza Community College back home. After arriving at Colorado in the fall of 1969, he spent so much time playing pranks (such as producing reams of printouts saying “Fuck Nixon”) that he failed a couple of his courses and was put on probation.

In addition, he created a program to calculate Fibonacci numbers that burned up so much computer time the university threatened to bill him for
the cost. So he readily
lived up to his bargain
with his parents and
transferred to De Anza.
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Having defeated by Li Jue, Yang Feng fled to the foothills

Having defeated by Li Jue, Yang Feng fled to the foothills of the Xian;

and he came up to offer his services as soon as he heard the Emperor’s journey. Seeing it was necessary to fight now, he drew up his line of battle.

Guo Si’s general, Cui Yong, rode out and began a volley of abuse.

  Yang Feng turned and said, “Where is Xu Huang?”

  In response out came a valiant warrior gripping a heavy battle-ax. He galloped up on his fleet bay, making directly for Cui Yong, whom he felled at the first blow. At this the whole force dashed forward and routed Guo Si. The defeated army went back some seven miles.

  Yang Feng rode forward to see the Emperor who graciously said, “It is a GREat service you have rendered: You have saved my life.”

  Yang Feng bowed and thanked him, and the Emperor asked to see the actual slayer of the rebel leader. So Xu Huang was led to the chariot where he bowed and was presented as Xu Huang of Hedong.

  the Emperor recognized the achievement of the warrior.

  then the cavalcade went forward, Yang Feng acting as escort as far as the city of Huaying, the halting place for the night. The Commander of the place, Duan Wei, supplied them with clothing and food. And the Emperor passed the night in Yang Feng’s camp.

Next day Guo Si, having mustered his troops, appeared in front of the camp, and Xu Huang rode out to engage. But Guo Si threw his army out so that they entirely surrounded the camp, and the Emperor was in the middle.

The position was very critical,

when help appeared in the person of a galloping general from the southeast,

and the rebels fell away at his assault.

Then Xu Huang smote them and so scored a victory.

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Li Jue sent one of his officers, General Wang Chan

Li Jue sent one of his officers, General Wang Chan of the Tiger Army, to arrest Huangfu Li; but Wang Chan had a sense of right and esteemed Huangfu Li as an honorable man. Instead of carrying out the orders, Wang Chan returned to say Huangfu Li could not be found.

Jia Xu tried to work on the feelings of the barbarian tribes. He said to them, “The Son of Heaven knows you are loyal to him and have bravely fought and suffered. He has issued a secret command for you to go home, and then he will reward you.”

  the tribesmen had a grievance against Li Jue for not paying them, so they listened readily to the insidious persuasions of Jia Xu and deserted.

  then Jia Xu advised the Emperor, “Li Jue is covetous in nature. He is deserted and enfeebled. A high office should be granted to him to lead him astray.”

  So the Emperor officially appointed Li Jue Regent Marshal. This delighted him GREatly, and he ascribed his promotion to the potency of his wise witches’ prayers and incantations. He rewarded those people most liberally.

  But his army was forgotten. Wherefore his commander, Yang Feng, was angry.

  Yang Feng said to General Song Guo, “We have taken all the risks and exposed ourselves to stones and arrows in his service, yet instead of giving us any reward he ascribes all the credit to those witches of his.”

  “Let us put him out of the way and rescue the Emperor,” said Song Guo.

  “You explode a bomb within as signal, and I will attack from outside.”

So the two aGREed to act together that very night in the second watch. But they had been overheard, and the eavesdropper told Li Jue. Song Guo was seized and put to death. That night Yang Feng waited outside for the signal and while waiting, out came Li Jue himself. Then a melee began, which lasted till the fourth watch. But Yang Feng got away and fled to Xian.

But from this time Li Jue’s army began to fall away, and he felt more than ever the losses caused by Guo Si’s frequent attacks. Then came news that Zhang Ji, at the head of a large army, was coming down from Shanxi to make peace between the two factions.

Zhang Ji vowed he would attack the one who was recalcitrant.

Li Jue tried to gain favor by hastening to send to

tell Zhang Ji he was ready to make peace.

So did Guo Si.

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Guo Si’s army arrived, and Li Jue went out to give battle

Guo Si’s army arrived, and Li Jue went out to give battle. Guo Si’s troops had no success and retired. then Li Jue removed the imperial captives to Meiwo with his nephew Li Xian as gaoler. Supplies were reduced, and famine showed itself on the faces of the eunuchs. The Emperor sent to Li Jue to request five carts of rice and five sets of bullock bones for his attendants.

 

Li Jue angrily replied, “the court gets food morning and evening. Why do they ask for more?”

He sent putrid meat and rotten grain, and the Emperor was very vexed at the new insult.

Imperial Counselor Yang Qi counseled patience, saying, “Li Jue is a base creature but, under the present circumstances, Your Majesty must put up with it. You may not provoke him.”

  the Emperor bowed and was silent, but the tears fell on his garments. Suddenly someone came in with the tidings that a force of cavalry, their sabers glittering in the sun, was approaching to rescue them. Then they heard the gongs beat and the roll of the drums.

  the Emperor sent to find out who it was. But it was Guo Si, and the sadness fell again. Presently arose a GREat din. For Li Jue had gone out to do battle with Guo Si, whom he abused by name.

  “I treated you well, and why did you try to kill me?” said Li Jue.

  “You are a rebel, why should I not slay you?” cried Guo Si.

  “You call me rebel when I am guarding the Emperor?”

  “You have abducted him: Do you call that guarding?”

  “Why so many words? Let us forgo a battle and settle the matter in single combat, the winner to take the Emperor and go.”

  the two generals fought in front of their armies, but neither could prevail over the other.

  then they saw Yang Biao come riding up to them, crying, “Rest a while, O Commanders! For I have invited a party of officers to arrange a peace.”

  Wherefore the two leaders retired to their camps. Soon Yang Biao, Zhu Jun, and sixty other officials came up and went to Guo Si’s camp. They were all thrown into confinement.

  “We came with good intentions,” they moaned, “and we are treated like this.”

“Li Jue has run off with the Emperor; I have to have the officers,” said Guo Si.

“What does it mean? One has the Emperor, the other his officers.

What do you want?” said Yang Biao.

Guo Si lost patience and drew his sword,

but Commander Yang Mi persuaded him not to slay the speaker.

Then Guo Si released Yang Biao and Zhu Jun but kept the others in the camp.

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Lady Qiong did not wish him to go and she said,

Lady Qiong did not wish him to go and she said,

“This Li Jue is very deep, and one cannot fathom his designs. You two are not of equal rank, and if he made away with you, what would become of your poor handmaid?”

Guo Si paid no attention, and his wife could not prevail on him to stay at home.

Late in the afternoon some presents arrived from Li Jue’s palace, and Lady Qiong secretly put poison into the delicacies before she set them before her lord.

  Guo Si was going to taste at once but she said, “It is unwise to consume things that come from outside. Let us try on a dog first.”

  they did and the dog died. This incident made Guo Si doubt the kindly intentions of his colleague.

  One day, at the close of business at court, Li Jue

invited Guo Si to his palace. After Guo Si arrived home in the evening, rather the worse for too much wine,

he was seized with a colic. His wife said she suspected poison and hastily administered an emetic, which relieved the pain.

  Guo Si began to feel angry, saying, “We did everything together and helped each other always. Now he wants to injure me. If I do not get in the first blow, I shall suffer some injury.”

  So Guo Si began to prepare his guards for any sudden emergency.

  This was told to Li Jue, and he in turn GREw angry, saying, “So Guo Si is doing so and so!”

then Li Jue got his guards under way and came to attack Guo Si.

Both houses had ten thousand,

and the quarrel became so serious that they fought a pitched battle under the city walls.

When that was over both sides turned to plunder the people.

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“He fears an ambush in the wood,” said Cao Cao

“He fears an ambush in the wood,” said Cao Cao. “We will set up flags there and deceive him. There is a long embankment near the camp but behind it there is no water. There we will lay an ambush to fall upon Lu Bu when he comes to burn the wood.”

So Cao Cao hid all his soldiers behind the embankment except half a hundred drummers, and he got together many peasants to loiter within the stockade as though it was not empty.

Lu Bu rode back and told Chen Gong what he had seen.

  “This Cao Cao is very crafty and full of wiles,” said the adviser. “Do not act.”

  “I will use fire this time and burn out his ambush,” said Lu Bu.

  Next morning Lu Bu rode out, and there he saw flags flying everywhere in the wood. He ordered his troops forward to set fire on all sides. But to his surprise no one rushed out to make for the stockade. Still he heard the beating of drums and doubt filled his mind. Suddenly he saw a party of soldiers move out from the shelter of the stockade. He galloped over to see what it meant.

  then the signal-bombs exploded; out rushed the troops and all their leaders dashed forward. Xiahou Dun, Xiahou Yuan, Xu Chu, Dian Wei, Li Dian, and Yue Jing all attacked at once. Lu Bu was at a loss and fled into the open country. One of his generals, Cheng Lian, was killed by an arrow of Yue Jing. Two thirds of his troops were lost, and the beaten remainder went to tell Chen Gong what had come to pass.

  “We had better leave,” said Chen Gong. “An empty city cannot be held.”

So Chen Gong and Gao Shun, taking their chief’s family with them,

abandoned Dingtao.

When Cao Cao’s soldiers got into the city,

they met with no resistance.

Zhang Chao committed suicide by burning himself. Zhang Miao fled to Yuan Shu.

Thus the whole northeast fell under the power of Cao Cao. He immediately tranquilized the people and rebuilt the cities and their defenses.

Lu Bu in his retreat fell in with his generals, and Chen Gong also rejoined him, so that he was by no means broken.

“I have but small army,” said Lu Bu, “but still enough to break Cao Cao.”

And so he retook the backward road. Indeed:

Thus does fortune alternate, victory, defeat, the happy conqueror today, tomorrow, must retreat?

What was the fate of Lu Bu will appear later.

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