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To design these fonts, Hertzfeld recruited a high school friend from

To design these fonts, Hertzfeld recruited a high school friend from suburban Philadelphia, Susan Kare. They named the fonts after the stops on Philadelphia’s Main Line commuter train: Overbrook, Merion, Ardmore, and

Rosemont. Jobs found the process fascinating. Late one afternoon he stopped by and started brooding about the font names. They were “little cities that nobody’s ever heard of,” he complained. “They ought to be world-class cities!” The fonts were renamed Chicago, New York, Geneva, London, San Francisco, Toronto, and Venice.

everywhere you look!” He dragged Atkinson out for a walk, pointing out car windows and billboards and street signs. “Within three blocks, we found seventeen examples,” said Jobs. “I started pointing them out everywhere until he was completely convinced.”

strip of plastic at the top so that it avoided the Neanderthal forehead that made the Lisa subtly unattractive. The patent for the design of the Apple case was issued in the name of Steve Jobs as well as Manock and Oyama. “Even

though Steve didn’t draw any of the lines, his ideas and inspiration made the design what it is,” Oyama later said. “To be honest, we didn’t know what it meant for a computer to be ‘friendly’ until Steve told us.”

spirit. It emphasized rationality and functionality by employing clean lines and forms. Among the maxims preached by Mies and Gropius were “God is in the details” and “Less is more.” As with Eichler homes, the artistic sensibility was combined with the capability for mass production.

Jobs publicly discussed his embrace of the Bauhaus style in a talk he gave at the 1983 design conference, the theme of which was “The Future Isn’t What It Used to Be.” He predicted the passing of the Sony style in favor of Bauhaus

Every month or so, Manock and Oyama would present a new iteration based on Jobs’s previous criticisms. The latest plaster model would be dramatically

unveiled, and all the previous attempts would be lined up next to it. That not only helped them gauge the design’s evolution, but it prevented

simplicity. “The current wave of industrial design is Sony’s high-tech look, which is gunmetal gray, maybe paint it black, do weird stuff to it,” he said. “It’s easy to do that. But it’s not great.” He proposed an alternative, born of

the Bauhaus, that was more true to the function and nature of the products. “What we’re going to do is make the products high-tech, and we’re going to package them cleanly so that you know they’re high-tech. We will fit them in a small package, and then we can

make them beautiful

and white, just like

Braun does

with its electronics.”

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Jobs’s triumph was soon complete. A few weeks after winning

Jobs’s triumph was soon complete. A few weeks after winning his power struggle with Raskin to run the Mac division, he helped push out Mike Scott as Apple’s president. Scotty had become more and more erratic, alternately bullying and nurturing. He finally lost most of his support among the

employees when he surprised them by imposing a round of layoffs that he handled with atypical ruthlessness. In addition, he had begun to suffer a variety of afflictions, ranging from eye infections to narcolepsy. When Scott

was on vacation in Hawaii, Markkula called together the top managers to ask if he should be replaced. Most of them, including Jobs and John Couch, said yes. So Markkula took over as an interim and rather passive president, and Jobs found that he now had full rein to do what he wanted with the Mac division.

a long-distance call to go through without extra charges. The article revealed that other tones that

served to route calls could be found in an issue of the Bell System Technical Journal, which AT&T

immediately began asking libraries to pull from their shelves.

As soon as Jobs got the call from Wozniak that Sunday afternoon, he knew they would have to get

 

their hands on the technical journal right away. “Woz picked me up a few minutes later, and we went

to the library at SLAC [the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center] to see if we could find it,” Jobs recounted.

It was Sunday and the library was closed, but they knew how to get in through a door that was rarely locked.

“I remember that we were furiously digging through the stacks, and it was Woz who finally found the journal

with all the frequencies. It was like, holy shit, and we opened it and there it was. We kept saying to ourselves,

‘It’s real. Holy shit, it’s real.’ It was all laid out—the tones, the frequencies.”

Wozniak went to Sunnyvale Electronics before it closed that evening and bought the parts to make

an analog tone generator. Jobs had built a frequency counter when he was part of the HP Explorers

Club, and they used it to calibrate the desired tones. With a dial, they could replicate and tape-record

the sounds specified in the article. By midnight they were ready to test it. Unfortunately the oscillators

they used were not quite stable enough to replicate the right chirps to fool the phone company.

“We could see the instability using Steve’s frequency counter,” recalled Wozniak, “and we just

couldn’t make it work. I had to leave for Berkeley

the next morning, so we

decided I would work

on building a digital

version once I got there.”

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publications department. One of Raskin’s dreams was

publications department. One of Raskin’s dreams was to build an inexpensive computer for the masses, and in 1979 he convinced Mike Markkula to put him in charge

askin envisioned a machine that would sell for $1,000 and be a simple appliance, with screen and keyboard and computer all in one unit. To keep the cost down, he proposed a tiny five-inch screen and

 

to pick him up. They immediately drove up from Los Altos. “

My head had been shaved, I was wearing Indian cotton robes,

and my skin had turned a deep, chocolate brown-red from the sun,”

he recalled. “So I’m sitting there and my parents walked past me about

five times and finally my mother came up and said ‘Steve?’ and I said ‘Hi!’”

They took him back home, where he continued trying to find himself.

It was a pursuit with many paths toward enlightenment. In the mornings

and evenings he would meditate and study Zen, and in between he would

drop in to audit physics or engineering courses at Stanford.

The Search

Jobs’s interest in Eastern spirituality, Hinduism, Zen Buddhism,

and the search for enlightenment was not merely the passing phaseof a nineteen-year-old. Throughout his life he would seek to follow

many of the basic precepts of Eastern religions, such as the emphasis

on experiential praj?ā, wisdom or cognitive understanding that is intuitively

experienced through concentration of the mind. Years later, sitting in his

Palo Alto garden, he reflected on the lasting influence of his trip to India:

Coming back to America was, for me, much more of a cultural shock than

going to India. The people in the Indian countryside don’t use their intellect

like we do, they use their intuition instead, and their intuition is far more

developed than in the rest of the world. Intuition is a very powerful thing,

more powerful

than intellect, in my

opinion. That’s had

a big impact on my work.

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With Apple’s success came fame for its poster boy

With Apple’s success came fame for its poster boy.

Inc. became the first magazine to put him on its cover,

in October 1981. “This man has changed business forever,”

 

it proclaimed. It showed Jobs with a neatly trimmed

beard and well-styled long hair, wearing blue jeans and

a dress shirt with a blazer that was a little too satiny.

 

Jobs confided to close friends that he was driven by the pain he was feeling

about being put up for adoption and not knowing about his birth parents.

“Steve had a very profound desire to know his physical parents so he could

better know himself,” Friedland later said. He had learned from Paul and

Clara Jobs that his birth parents had both been graduate students at a university

and that his father might be Syrian. He had even thought about hiring

a private investigator, but he decided not to do so for the time being.

“I didn’t want to hurt my parents,” he recalled, referring to Paul and Clara.

“He was struggling with the fact that he had been adopted,” according to

Elizabeth Holmes. “He felt that it was an issue that he needed to get hold

of emotionally.” Jobs admitted as much to her. “This is something that is

bothering me, and I need to focus on it,” he said. He was even more open with

Greg Calhoun. “He was doing a lot of soul-searching about being adopted, and

he talked about it with me a lot,” Calhoun recalled. “The primal scream and the

mucusless diets, he was trying to cleanse himself and get deeper into his

frustration about his birth. He told me he was deeply angry about the

fact that he had been given up.”

John Lennon had undergone the same primal scream therapy in 1970,

and in December of that year he released the song “Mother” with the

Plastic Ono Band. It dealt with Lennon’s own feelings about a father who

had abandoned him and a mother who had been killed when he was a teenager.

The refrain includes

the haunting chant “

Mama don’t go, Daddy come

home.” Jobs used to

play the song often.

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Rod Holt, the engineer who had built the power supply,

Rod Holt, the engineer who had built the power supply,

was getting a lot of options, and he tried to turn Jobs around.

“We have to do something for your buddy Daniel,” he said, and

 

he suggested they each give him some of their own options.

“Whatever you give him, I will match it,” said Holt. Replied Jobs,

“Okay. I will give him zero.”

 

so I didn’t push,” said Kottke. The official reason he wasn’t given

stock options was that he was an hourly technician, not a salaried

engineer, which was the cutoff level for options. Even so, he could

 

have justifiably been given “founder’s stock,” but Jobs decided not to.

“Steve is the opposite of loyal,” according to Andy Hertz-feld, an early

Apple engineer who has nevertheless remained friends with him.

“He’s anti-loyal. He has to abandon the people he is close to.”

 

a breadboard. “While Steve was breadboarding, I spent time playing my

favorite game ever, which was the auto racing game Gran Trak 10,” Wozniak said.

Astonishingly, they were able to get the job done in four days, and

Wozniak used only forty-five chips. Recollections differ, but by most

accounts Jobs simply gave Wozniak half of the base fee and not the bonus

Bushnell paid for saving five chips. It would be another ten years before

Wozniak discovered (by being shown the tale in a book on the history of

Atari titled Zap) that Jobs had been paid this bonus. “I think that Steve needed

the money, and he just didn’t tell me the truth,” Wozniak later said.

When he talks about it now, there are long pauses, and he admits that it

causes him pain. “I wish he had just been honest. If he had told me he

needed the money, he should have known I would have just given it to

him. He was a friend. You help your friends.” To Wozniak, it showed

a fundamental difference in their characters. “Ethics always mattered to me,

and I still don’t understand why he would’ve gotten paid one thing and told

me he’d gotten paid another,” he said. “But, you know, people are different.”

When Jobs learned this story was published, he called Wozniak to deny it.

“He told me that he didn’t remember doing it, and that if he did something

like that he would remember it, so he probably didn’t do it,” Wozniak recalled.

When I asked Jobs directly, he became unusually quiet and hesitant.

“I don’t know where that allegation comes from,” he said. “I gave him

half the money I ever got. That’s how I’ve always been with Woz. I mean,

Woz stopped working in 1978. He never did one ounce

of work after 1978.

And yet he got exactly

the same shares of

Apple stock that I did.”

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of a small development project code-named “Annie”

of a small development project code-named “Annie” to do just that. Since Raskin thought it was sexist to name computers after women, he redubbed the project in honor of his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh. But he

changed the spelling in order not to conflict with the name of the audio equipment maker McIntosh Laboratory. The proposed computer became known as the Macintosh.

San Diego argued that computers should have graphical rather than text-based interfaces. When he got fed up with

teaching, he rented a hot air balloon, flew over the chancellor’s house, and shouted down his decision to quit.

your intuition starts to blossom and you start to see things more clearlyand be in the present more. Your mind just slows down, and you see

Bruce Horn was one of the programmers at Xerox PARC. When some of his friends, such as Larry Tesler, decided to join the

Macintosh group, Horn considered going there as well. But he got a good offer, and a $15,000 signing bonus, to join another

company. Jobs called him on a Friday night. “You have to come into Apple tomorrow morning,” he said.

a tremendous expanse in the moment. You see so much more than

you could see before. It’s a discipline; you have to practice it.

Zen has been a deep influence in my life ever since. At one point

I was thinking about going to Japan and trying to get into the

Eihei-ji monastery, but my spiritual advisor urged me to stay here.

He said there is nothing over there that isn’t here, and he was correct.

I learned the truth of the Zen saying that if you are willing to travel around

the world to meet a teacher, one will appear next door.

Jobs did in fact find a teacher right in his own neighborhood. Shunryu Suzuki,

who wrote Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind and ran the San Francisco Zen Center,

used to come to Los Altos every Wednesday evening to lecture and meditate

with a small group of followers. After a while he asked his assistant,

Kobun Chino Otogawa, to open a full-time center there. Jobs became

a faithful follower, along with his occasional girlfriend, Chrisann Brennan,

and Daniel Kottke and Elizabeth Holmes. He also began to go by himself on

retreats to the

Tassajara Zen Center,

a monastery near

Carmel where

Kobun also taught.

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In a short time Cao Hong, Li Dian, and Yue Jing came

In a short time Cao Hong, Li Dian, and Yue Jing came

to the imperial chariot and their names having been duly communicated.

Cao Hong said, “When my brother, Cao Cao, heard of the approach of the rebels, he feared that the advance guard he had sent might be too weak, so he sent me to march quickly for reinforcement.”

  “General Cao Cao is indeed a trusty servant!” said the Emperor.

  Orders were given to advance, Cao Hong leading the escort. By and by scouts came to say that the rebels were coming up very quickly. The Emperor bade Xiahou Dun divide his force into two parts to oppose them. Xiahou Dun and Cao Hong’s armies threw out two wings with cavalry in front and foot behind. They attacked with vigor and beat off the Li Jue and Guo Si’s rebels with severe loss of ten thousand. Then Xiahou Dun and Cao Hong begged the Emperor to return to Luoyang, and Xiahou Dun guarded the city.

  Next day Cao Cao came with his GREat army, and having got them duly camped he went into the city to audience. He knelt at the foot of the steps, but was called up hither to stand beside the Emperor and be thanked.

  Cao Cao replied, “Having been the recipient of GREat bounty, thy servant owes the state much gratitude. The measure of evil of the two rebels is full, I have two hundred thousand of good soldiers to oppose them, and those soldiers are fully equal to securing the safety of Your Majesty and the Throne. The preservation of the state sacrifice is the matter of real moment.”

High honors were conferred on Cao Cao. He was appointed Commander of Capital District, Minister of War, and granted Military Insignia.

the two rebels, Li Jue and Guo Si, wished to attack Cao Cao’s army while fatigued from its long march. But their adviser, Jia Xu, opposed this, saying, “There was no hope of victory.

He has both strong soldiers and brave leaders.

Submission may bring us amnesty.”

Li Jue was angry at the suggestion,

crying, “Do you wish to dishearten the army?”

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Cao Cao understood and at once prepared his army

Cao Cao understood and at once prepared his army to move. Just at this moment

an imperial messenger was announced with the very command Cao Cao wanted, and Cao Cao immediately set out.

  At Luoyang everything was desolate. the walls had fallen, and there were no means of rebuilding them, while rumors and reports of the coming of Li Jue and Guo Si kept up a state of constant anxiety.

  the frightened Emperor spoke with Yang Feng, saying, “What can be done? There is no answer from the East of Huashang, and our enemies are near.”

  then Yang Feng and Han Xian said, “We, your ministers, will fight to the death for you.”

  But Dong Cheng said, “the fortifications are weak and our military resources small, so that we cannot hope for victory, and what does defeat mean? I see nothing better to propose than a move into the east of Huashang Mountains.”

  the Emperor aGREed to this, and the journey began without further preparation. There being few horses, the officers of the court had to march afoot. Hardly a bowshot outside the gate they saw a thick cloud of dust out of which came all the clash and clamor of an advancing army. The Emperor and his Consort were dumb with fear. Then appeared a horseman; he was the messenger returning from the East of Huashang Mountains.

He rode up to the chariot, made an obeisance, and said, “General Cao Cao, as commanded, is coming with all the military force of the East of Huashang; but hearing that Li Jue and Guo Si had again approached the capital, he has sent Xiahou Dun in advance. With Xiahou Dun are many capable leaders and fifty thousand of proved soldiers. They will guard Your Majesty.”

All fear was swept away. Soon after Xiahou Dun and his staff arrived. Xiahou Dun, Xu Chu,

and Dian Wei were presented to the Emperor who graciously addressed them.

Then one came to say a large army was approaching from the east,

and at the Emperor’s command Xiahou Dun went to ascertain who these were.

He soon returned saying they were Cao Cao’s infantry.

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When the rebel generals showed signs of pursuit

When the rebel generals showed signs of pursuit,

Yang Feng and Dong Cheng had to play a double-edged sword. They sent to offer to discuss terms of peace with Li Jue and Guo Si; at the same time they sent a secret edict to enlist the help from the leaders of the White Wave rebels——Han Xian, Li Yue, and Hu Cai. The White Wave was a branch of the Yellow Scarves, and Li Yue was actually a brigand and had inspired rebels throughout the country. But the need for help was so desperate.

these three, being promised pardon for their faults and crimes and a grant of official rank, naturally responded to the call, and thus the loyal side was strengthened so that Hongnong was recaptured. But meanwhile Li Jue and Guo Si laid waste whatever place they reached, slaying the aged and weakly, forcing the strong to join their ranks. When going into a fight they forced these people-soldiers to the front, and they called them the “Dare-to-Die” soldiers.

  Li Jue and Guo Si’s force was overwhelming. When Li Yue, the White Wave leader, approached with his army, Guo Si bade his soldiers scatter clothing and valuables along the road. The late robbers could not resist the temptation, so a scramble began. Then Guo Si’s soldiers fell upon the disordered ranks and did much damage. Yang Feng and Dong Cheng had to take the Emperor away to the north.

the enemy came very near, and the Emperor left his carriage and went on foot. Yang Feng and Dong Cheng escorted him to the bank of the Yellow River. Li Yue sought a boat to ferry him to the other side. The weather was very cold and the Emperor and Empress cuddled up close to each other shivering. They reached the river but the banks were too high, and they could not get down into the boat. So Yang Feng proposed to fasten together the horses’ bridles and lower down the Emperor slung by the waist. However, the Empress’ brother, Fu De, found some rolls of white silk from dead soldiers, and they rolled up the two imperial personages in the silk, and thus they lowered them down near the boat. Then Li Yue took up his position in the prow leaning on his sword. Fu De carried the Empress on his back into the boat.

Li Jue and Guo Si pursued.

Li Yue said, “the danger is grave. I pray Your Majesty mount a horse and go in advance.”

the Emperor replied, “I cannot bear to abandon my officers.”

they wept and struggled on as best they could.

The White Wave leader Hu Cai was killed in one attack.

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When they had time to see their helper they found him

When they had time to see their helper, they found him to be Dong Cheng,

the uncle of the Emperor or the “State Uncle”。 The Emperor wept as he related his sorrows and dangers.

  Said Dong Cheng, “Be of good courage, Sire. General Yang Feng and I have pledged ourselves to kill both the rebels Li Jue and Guo Si and so purify the world.”

  the Emperor bade them travel east as soon as possible, and so they went on night and day till they reached their destination Hongnong.

  Guo Si led his defeated army back. Meeting Li Jue, he told Li Jue of the rescue of the Emperor and whither they was going.

  “If they reach the Huashang Mountains and get settled in the east, they will send out proclamations to the whole country, calling up the nobles to attack us, and we and our families will be in danger,” said Guo Si.

  “Zhang Ji is holding Changan, and we must be careful. there is nothing to prevent a joint attack on Hongnong, when we can kill the Emperor and divide the empire between us,” said Li Jue.

  Guo Si found this a suitable scheme, so their armies came together again in one place and united in plundering the countryside. As they proceeded to Hongnong, they left destruction behind them.

  Yang Feng and Dong Cheng heard of the rebels’ approach when they were yet a long way off, so Yang Feng and Dong Cheng turned back and decided to meet them at Dongjian.

Li Jue and Guo Si had previously made their plan. Since the loyal troops were few as

compared with their own horde, they would overwhelm the loyal troops like a flood. So when the day

of battle came, they poured out covering the hills and filling the plains. Yang Feng and Dong Cheng

devoted themselves solely to the protection of the Emperor and Empress. The officials, the attendants,

the archives and records,

and all the paraphernalia of the court were left to care for themselves.

The rebels ravaged Hongnong,

but the two protectors got the Emperor safely away into Shanbei.

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